Various national and international measures and programs were set up, which will strengthen the culture of innovation and technology transfer. Some of these supporting measures promote directly or indirectly industrial biotechnology. Here you will find some important key figures divided by region.
Free State of Bavaria
The support of the Free State of Bavaria concerning industrial biotechnology is provided primarily by the following ministries:
- Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology (BayStMWIVT)
- Bavarian State Ministry of Sciences, Research and the Arts (BayStMWFK)
- Bavarian State Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BayStMELF)
- Bavarian State Ministry for Environment and Health (BayStMUG)
Here you can find a selection of programs, facilities and support measures in the Free State of Bavaria with relevance for industrial biotechnology.
As a national concept, the "High-Tech Strategy 2020" brings together the most important contributors for innovation under a common vision. Future projects of the strategy are, for example, renewable resources as an alternative to oil or the CO2-neutral, energy-efficient and climate-adapted city. More details on federal incentives can be found here.
The main funding agencies of the Federation:
- Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
- Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV)
- Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi)
- Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
- Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU)
The European Commission has created the "7th Framework Program "(FP7), the world's largest transnational funding program for research funding. It covers a period of 7 years (2007-2013) and a total budget of approximately 54 billion euros. Among others, industrial biotechnology and demonstration plants have been considered as eligible areas.
"Horizon 2020 - The Framework Program for Research and Innovation" comes into force by 2014 (until 2020). The European Commission's proposal formulates three guiding principles that should be addressed in the program:
- Excellent science
- Industrial leadership
- Social challenges
Under "Industrial leadership" shall be covered areas such as "new, improved materials", "biotechnology" and "improved production and development". A budget of about 80 billion euros is discussed. Information on other European measures can be found here.
The American "Energy Policy Act" (EPAct) of 2005 includes the program "Renewable Fuel Standard" (RFS1). This requires that by 2012 a total of 7.5 billion gallons (28.4 billion liters) of fuel from renewable resources must be added to the gasoline in the transport sector. Then, the "Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007" (EISA) has expanded the existing program RFS1 to diesel fuel. Thus it was newly decided that by 2022 a total of 36 billion gallons (136.3 billion liters) of biofuel must be added to the fuels in the transport sector. In addition, new biofuel qualities were established and different volume fractions thereof were determined.
Besides, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have established a joint strategy for the use of biomass in the "National Biofuels Action Plan." The goal is that existing biomass - mainly cellulosic waste materials - is used for biofuel production. For this, they invest several million U.S. dollars.
International - emissions trading and CO2-allowances
The sale of CO2-allowances is an environmental measure in the global emissions trading. States, companies or industries get certain emission rights - the CO2-allowances - that allow them to produce a certain amount of emissions. If the respective CO2-emission exceeds the amount specified in the allowance, the producers have to purchase additional CO2-allowances to cover the extra emissions. If, however, less CO2 than specified in the certificate is produced, for example, by the operation of eco-friendly, biotechnological plants or the use of renewable energy sources, the producers can sell their excess emission rights to others and thus operate economically. More details on emissions trading are available here.
The application deadline for the allocation method of the third trading period (2013-2020) ended on 23th January 2012.